The nail is an integral component of the digital tip serves to protect the fingertip, provides counterforce to tactile sensation and carries thermoregulationion via glomus bodies in the nail bed and matrix.
Parts of The Nail
The nail plate (corpus unguis) is the hard visible part of the nail. The nail plate is composed of hard, keratinized, squamous cells that are loosely adherent to germinal matrix but strongly attached to the sterile matrix.
Matrix is the tissue that a nail [nail plate] protects. It lies beneath the nail and contains nerves, lymph and blood vessels. The matrix is responsible for producing cells that become the nail plate. It has two parts strile and germinal.
Lunula represents distal extent of the germinal matrix.
Hyponychium, Eponychium and Paronychium
The hyponychium is the epithelium located beneath the nail plate at the junction between the free edge of the nail and the skin of the fingertip.
The eponychium is the small band of epithelium that extends from the posterior nail wall onto the base of the nail.
Paronychium are the lateral nail folds on either side of nail plate.
Terminal branches of the radial and ulnar proper palmar (volar) digital arteries supply the nail.
Nail growth is separated occurs from germinal matrix, sterile matrix, and dorsal roof of the nail fold.
Nail growth is estimated at 3-4 mm per month.
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