Hand is a complex organ and is injured quite often. In this article we would discuss some common terms in relation to hand injuries and anatomy.
Hand, like foot contains five digits which articulate with respective metacarpals, again five in number.
The digits by their standard name are
- Index finger
- Long or middle finger
- Ring finger
- Little finger
Each digit and metacarpal constitute a ray with thumb being part of first ray and little finger that of fifth ray
The hand and digits have palmar or volar surfaces [On the side of palm] and dorsal surfaces [on the other side of palm].
The hand and each digits also have and radial and ulnar borders. Radial being on side of thumb and ulnar on side of little finger.
Supination & Pronation
Supination of the forearm positions the hand with the palmar surface up. Pronation places the palmar surface inferior.
Radial and Ulnar Deviation
If the hand tilt towards radial side, it is called radial deviation whereas opposite tilting to little finger is called ulnar deviation.
Flexion and Extension
Flexion is the motion that brings palm near to volar surface of the forearm.
Opposite movement that takes dorsal surface of the hand to dorsal surface of the forearm is called extension.
Abduction and Adduction
The neutral line i this case is middle finger. Motion of the digit [Motion is in plane of the hand] that takes it towards middle finger is called adduction and that takes it away is called abduction.
In anatomical position, the fingers are in extension. Movement of the digits dorsally is hyperextension, while movement toward the palm is flexion.
Thumb flexion extension are in a plane that is perpendicular to motion plane of other fingers. It is due to rootation of the thumb anatomically.
In additon to usual finger movements, thumb the thumb may move in toward the other digits to touch the digit as in pinching(opposition) or away from them (retroposition).« Back to Glossary Index