Ligamentotaxis is a technique where ligaments are placed in sustained longitudinal traction so as to cause the relalignment of the fractured fragments.
This method is used in reduction of fractures near the joints.The sustained traction is held most commonly by external instrumentation.
This is called indirect reduction of the fracture [When compared with direct technique of holding and reducing the fractured fragments]
When you apply traction to the ligament it causes the attached bone fragments to reduce. The technique works only if the ligaments are intact. It is of no use when ligaments are broken too.
Fractures of distal end of radius and tibia are commonly reduced by this principle.
In posterior instrumentation of spine, ligamentotaxis is used for indirect reduction of the retropulsed fragments.