Many a fractures in orthopedics is known by their discoverers. It is common practice to use these eponyms and they are always worth remembering. As a mark of respect, the fracture names keep on passing from generation to generations. Though, fracture eponyms do not offer scientific communications, they are quite interesting.
I am going to put an exhaustive list of fracture eponyms. Where available, history of names of fracture is also given.
Implies a variety of fractures of the talus. It was described after World War I as rudder bar is driven into foot during plane crash.
Following diagram shows talus bone.
Fractures included under this name include compression fractures of the talar neck, fractures of the body, posterior process or fracture dislocation injuries. The talus is the second most injured bone in the foot after calcaneus. Neck of talus is the most frequently injured site.
Here is an image of talus bone fracture fixed with a screw.
The term was coined by Henry Graeme Anderson in 1919 due to his observations of injury patterns secondary to crashing planes. This term is now obsolete because people don’t routinely crash planes at non-lethal velocities.
Displaced articular lip fracture of the distal radius. It may be associated with carpal subluxatioin. Fracture configuration may be in a dorsal or volar direction.
It named after by John Rhea Barton (1794-1871), orthopaedic surgeon in USA.
Bennett’s fracture is oblique fracture of the first metacarpal base separating a small triangular fragment of the volar lip from the proximally displaced metacarpal shaft.
It refers to a fracture-dislocation of the ankle in which there was fracture of the fibula and posterior dislocation of the talus.
The term Bosworth fracture is no longer used. Bosworth fracture is named after David M Bosworth, an orthopedic surgeon from New York.
Fracture of the fifth metacarpal neck with volar displacement of the metacarpal head. The name is boxer fracture as these fractures typically occur when punching.
Fracture of the vertebral body from axial load, usually with outward displacement of the fragments. May occur in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine.
Distraction fracture of the thoracolumbar vertebral body with horizontal disruption of the spinous process, neural arch, and vertebral body.
Chauffeur’s fracture (Hutchinson’s fracture)
Oblique fracture of the radial styloid, initially attributed to the starting crank of an engine being forcibly reversed by a backfire.
Fragment can vary markedly in size.
Chopart’s fracture and Dislocation
Fracture and/or dislocation involving Chopart’s joints (talonavicular and calcaneocuboid) of the foot.
Clay-shoveler’s (coal-shoveler’s) Fracture
Spinous process fracture of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae. Injury initially attributed to workers attempting to throw upward a full shovel of clay, but the clay, adhering to the shovel, would cause a sudden flexion force opposite to the neck musculature.
General term for fractures of the distal radius with dorsal displacememnt, with or without an ulnar styloid fracture.
Trimalleolar ankle fracture with fractures of both malleoli and the posterior lip of the tibia.
As seen in the example, it requires two views to fully appreciate the fracture.
Note: The example shown here also has tibial fracture which is not part of Cotton fracture.
A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material mostly. Punching is a metal forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool, called a punch, through the workpiece to create a hole via shearing.
When fracture appears on x-ray as if punched lesion by a force, it is called die-punch fracture. It is a kind of impacted fracture. This kind of fracture is mostly seen in distal radius.
A die-punch fracture results from axial loading forces on the distal radius. It is an intra-articular fracture of the lunate fossa of the distal radius. It may be depressed.
Fracture of the distal fibula with rupture of the distal tibiofibular ligaments and lateral displacement of the talus. This term is obsolete now. Duputryen’s fracture should not be confused with Duputreyen’s contracture which is entirely a separate disease entity bearing the same name.
Dupuytren’s fracture is named after the French Surgeon Guillaume Dupuytren (1777–1835)
Fracture of the iliac wing without disruption of the pelvic ring.
Fracture of the radial head with associated dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint.
Fracture of the radius in the distal third associated with subluxation of the distal ulna.
Incompletely fractured bone in a child, with a portion of the cortex and periosteum remaining intact on the compression side of the fracture.
Fracture through the neural arch of the second cervical vertebra (axis).
Posterolateral humeral head compression fracture caused by anterior glenohumeral dislocation and impaction of the humeral head against the anterior glenoid rim.
Fracture of the distal third of the humerus with entrapment of the radial nerve.
Comminuted fracture of the ring of the atlas due to axial compressive forces. Fractures usually occur anterior and posterior to the lateral facet joints.
Diaphyseal fracture of the base of the fifth metatarsal.
Lisfranc’s fracture dislocation
Fracture and/or dislocation involving Lisfranc’s (tarsometatarsal) joint of the foot. Lisfranc was one of Napoleon’s surgeons and described traumatic foot amputation through the level of the tarsometatarsal joint.
Fracture of the proximal fibula with syndesmosis rupture and associated fracture of the medial malleolus or rupture of the deltoid ligament.
Unstable pelvic fracture with vertical fractures anterior and posterior to the hip joint. Malgaigne fracture is an unstable type of pelvic fracture, which involves one hemipelvis, and results from vertical shear energy.
Flexion deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint caused by separation of the extensor tendon from the distal phalanx. The deformity may be secondary to direct injury of the extensor tendon or an avulsion fracture from the dorsum of the distal phalanx, where the tendon inserts.
Fracture of the proximal third of the ulna with associated dislocation of the radial head.
Isolated fracture of the ulna secondary to direct trauma.
Transcondylar humeral fracture with displacement of the distal fragment anteriorly and dislocation of the radius and ulna from the bicondylar fragment.
Fracture of the fibula 2 to 3 in above the lateral malleolus with rupture of the deltoid ligament and lateral subluxation of the talus.
Y-shaped intraarticular fracture of the thumb metacarpal.
Avulsion fracture of the lateral tibial condyle from the bony insertion of the iliotibial band.involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear.
Fracture of the lateral tubercle of the posterior talar process.
Fracture of the distal radius with palmar displacement of the distal fragment. Also referred to as a reverse Colle’s fracture.
Avulsion fracture of the medial femoral condyle at the origin of the medial collateral ligament.
Bilateral fractures of the superior and inferior public rami.
Flexion fracture/dislocation of the cervical spine with associated triangular anterior fragment of the involved vertebrae. Injury complex in unstable, with posterior ligamentous disruption.
Fracture of the lateral half of the distal tibial physis during differential closure of the physis. The medial part of the tibial physis has already fused.
Impaction fracture of childhood as the bone buckles instead of fracturing completely.
Inschioacetabular fracture that passes through the pubic rami and extends towards the sacroiliac joint. The medial wall of the acetabulum is displaced inward.
There are fracture names which might have missed the list. Please list them in the comments and I would update
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