Neuromuscular scoliosis develops at a younger age than idiopathic curves and a larger percentage of neuromuscular curves are progressive. Usually neuromuscular curves are long, C-shaped curves and associated pelvic obliquity is common.
The basic treatment methods are similar – observation, orthotic treatment, and surgery.
The goal of treatment is to maintain a spine balanced in the coronal and sagittal planes over a level pelvis.
These patients generally are less compliant with orthotic management and surgery is associated complications like increased bleeding, less satisfactory bone stock, longer fusions, and the necessity for fusion to the pelvis.
A classification of neuromuscular scoliosis is given below [Scoliosis Research Society]-
Upper motor neuron
- Cerebral palsy
- Spinocerebellar degeneration
- Friedreich ataxia
- Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
- Roussy-Levy Syndrome
- Spinal cord tumor
- Spinal cord trauma
Lower motor neuron
- Other viral myelitides
- Spinal muscle atrophy
- Dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome)