Bone screws have been used to fix the bony fragments since the middle of the nineteenth century. It must be noted that bone screws follow mechanical principles similar to other commonly used screws. Screw is a cylinder with spiral threads running on its outer surface which converts torsional forces into compression. Screws can be used […]
Metastatic calcification and dystrophic calcification are pathological calcification which means abnormal calcium deposits at the places where these are normally not found. Heterotopic ossification is another name for pathologic calcification and both metastatic and dystrophic calcification constitute heterotopic calcification. Normally,inorganic calcium salts are a found in bones and teeth. Pathologic or heterotopic calcification is the […]
What is Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone is a polypeptide hormone which plays a vital role in calcium metabolism along with vitamin D and calcitonin. Secretion of Parathyroid and Anatomy of Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid hormone contains 84 amino acids secreted by the parathyroid glands. It is formed by cleavage of proparathyroid hormone which is formed from […]
Orthobiologics Definition Orthobiologics are biological substances that are used to help injuries to heal more quickly. Orthobiologics are used to improve the healing of fractures, injured muscles, tendons and ligaments. Orthobiologics are made from substances that are naturally occur in body. When they are used in higher concentration, they may help to hasten the healing […]
The knee joint is a modified hinge joint (ginglymus). The knee joint is not a very stable joint. Knee range of motion is through following movements Flexion Extension Medial rotation Lateral rotation The femur and lateral meniscus move over the tibia during rotation, while the femur rolls and glides over both menisci during extension-flexion. Thus […]
Endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossifications are two types of ossification, process that results in the formation of bone tissue.
The two types of ossifications differ in the way new bone is formed.
In endochondral ossification, a cartilage is formed as a precursor on which new bone is laid down.
Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone into the primitive connective tissue (mesenchyme) and there is no intermediate cartilage involved.
Overpronation is the excessive pronation of the foot. Pronation movement is part of normal gait cycle. Pronation occurs as weight is transferred from the heel to the forefoot and the foot rolls inwards. Pronation is a movement of the subtalar joint (the joint between the talus and calcaneus, talus is on the top so it […]
Periosteal reaction is the formation of new bone after trauma or some other pathology from the periosteum as visualized on the radiographs. The periosteum is a membrane that covers bones except in cartilage part. Periosteal reaction is also known as periosteitis. When an insult occurs, vascular proliferation and thickening of the normal periosteum occur as […]
What is Knee effusion? Knee effusion or swelling of the knee occurs when excess fluid accumulates in or around the knee joint. Knee effusion is common with different types of arthritis, infections, and injuries. Arthritis, injury to the ligaments of the knee or infection cause body’s natural reaction is to surround the knee with a […]
A bone graft transplants bone tissue. Bone grafts to repair and rebuild diseased bones in your hips, knees, spine, and sometimes other bones and joints. Grafts can also repair bone loss caused by some types of fractures or cancers. Once your body accepts the bone graft, it provides a framework for growth of new, living […]