Elbow pain can be due to the problem in elbow joint, bones forming the joint or the tissues surrounding it. Elbow joint is formed by humerus bone above, and radius and ulna bones below. Most elbow pain results from overuse injuries. Relevant Anatomy of the Elbow Elbow Joint Lower End of Humerus The lower end […]
When we walk, we make the use of our two legs, alternately, to provide both support and propulsion, with at least one foot being in contact with the ground at all times. An individual’s style or way of walking – may change slightly with mood. While the terms gait and walking are often used interchangeably, […]
Hip pain is the broad term that denotes the pain in the hip joint and nearby structures. Hip joint is a ball and socket joint and is involved in day to day activities of load bearing. Hip pain may originate from the joint itself, from nearby structures or could be referred from other places. The […]
A degree of freedom is a plane of movement. The concept of degrees of freedom is central to kinematics. Consider a ship moving.It is moving in three dimensions. First, up and down in a vertical plane Second, left and right in a horizontal plane; Third backward and forward, also in a horizontal plane. Each of […]
Hawkins Kennedy impingement test is of shoulder impingement. It identifies impingement of greater tuberosity of humerus against the coracohumeral ligament, trapping all the intervening structures which include the supraspinatus muscle, teres minor muscle, and the infraspinatus muscle. The test was first described in the 1980s Drs. R. Hawkins and J. Kennedy, American physicians It is also popularly called Hawkins test. The […]
Musculoskeletal examination of the individuals with musculoskeletal complaints involves a thorough history, a comprehensive physical examination, and if appropriate, laboratory testing. Goals of Musculoskeletal Examination The goals of the initial encounter are to determine whether the musculoskeletal complaints is Articular or non articular in origin Inflammatory or noninflammatory in nature Acute or chronic Localized, widespread, […]
Neurogenic shock is a shock caused by autonomic dysregulation, mostly caused by spinal injuries resulting in loss of sympathetic tone and leading to low blood pressure, low heart rate and peripheral vasodilatation.