Colles fractures is the most common type of distal radial fracture and is seen more commonly in elderly women because the bone is weakened by osteoporosis.
Colles fracture is, however, found in all adult age groups and when it occurs in younger age groups , it usually is due to high impact trauma or fall.
This fracture was first defined by Abraham Colles.
Mechanism of Colles Fracture
Classical Colles fractures have the following characteristics
- Transverse fracture of the radius
- One inch (2.5 cm) proximal to the radio-carpal joint
- Dorsally displaced and dorsally angulated
Presentation of Colles Fracture
There is a history of fall and the patient presents with deformity in the wrist. In elderly patients, in whom the fracture is common, the swelling is minimal. However, in young patients, the swelling can be substantial as the injury required to break the bone is more and thus injury to associated soft tissues is also more.
Imaging of Colles Fracture
Plain films are usually sufficient though a CT may be desired in case of intra-articular extension of the fracture.
Colles fracture have following deformities
- Dorsal angulation
- Radial shortening [impaction]
- Loss of radial inclination
- Ulnar angulation of the wrist
- Dorsal displacement of the distal fragment
- Comminution at the fracture site
- Associated fracture of the ulnar styloid may be present in 50% of the cases.
Treatment of Colles Fracture
Most of the Colles’ fractures are treated by closed reduction and cast immobilisation. The cast extends from below the elbow to the metacarpal heads and holds the wrist somewhat flexed and in ulnar deviation. The cast is called Colles cast.
Open reduction and internal fixation should be considered in case of
- Unstable fracture
- Failure of closed reduction
Complications of Colles Fracture
Colles fracture alost always unite. An unreduced or insufficiently reduced fracture would go into malunion and result in in dinner fork deformity. These patients also may develop tear of extensor pollicis longus due to increased friction.
It is also known as complex regional pain syndrome and is characterized by severe pain, swelling and changes in the skin in the involved region. Nerve involvement may or may not be present.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
This occurs due to constriction of space around the medial nerve in the wrist following trauma.
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