Bone screws have been used to fix the bony fragments since the middle of the nineteenth century. It must be noted that bone screws follow mechanical principles similar to other commonly used screws. The screw is a cylinder with spiral threads running on its outer surface which converts torsional forces into compression. Screws can be […]
Nail Patella syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition characterized abnormalities of the nails, knees, elbows, and pelvis. The features vary in severity from individual to individual, even among members of the same family. The classical description is of a tetrad of nail dysplasia, patellar aplasia-hypoplasia, elbow joint dysplasia, and iliac horns. Nail abnormalities are seen […]
Metastatic calcification and dystrophic calcification are pathological calcification which means abnormal calcium deposits at the places where these are normally not found. Heterotopic ossification is another name for pathologic calcification and both metastatic and dystrophic calcification constitute heterotopic calcification. Normally, inorganic calcium salts are found in bones and teeth. Pathologic or heterotopic calcification is the […]
Ganglion cyst is the most common benign tumor of the hand. It is thought to be degeneration of the mucoid connective tissue. It most commonly occurs on the dorsal wrist in 60% cases and is seen as bump on the wrist.This arises generally from scapholunate joint but can also arise from the radioscaphoid or scaphotrapezial […]
Parathyroid hormone is a polypeptide hormone which plays a vital role in calcium metabolism along with vitamin D and calcitonin. Secretion of Parathyroid and Anatomy of Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid hormone contains 84 amino acids secreted by the parathyroid glands. It is formed by cleavage of proparathyroid hormone which is formed from cleavage of preproparathyroid hormone […]
Amniotic band syndrome is a rare disorder [but not hereditary] that entrapment of fetus in strands of amniotic tissue and causes a variety of different birth defects. The severity of amniotic band syndrome can range from a single, isolated finding to multiple, disfiguring complications. It is advocated that it should be called a sequence, rather […]
This article is an introduction to total joint replacement. Specific types of joint replacement — such as for the hip, knee, shoulder, or wrist are discussed separately. Joint replacement surgery is last resort but a highly effective method of treating joint problems including joint pain and deformity and restoring mobility. Joint replacement surgery is very […]
Orthobiologics Definition Orthobiologics are biological substances that are used to help injuries to heal more quickly. Orthobiologics are used to improve the healing of fractures, injured muscles, tendons and ligaments. Orthobiologics are made from substances that naturally occur in the body. When they are used in higher concentrations, they may help to hasten the healing […]
The knee joint is a modified hinge joint (ginglymus). The knee joint is not a very stable joint. Knee range of motion is through following movements- Flexion Extension Medial rotation Lateral rotation The femur and lateral meniscus move over the tibia during rotation, while the femur rolls and glides over both menisci during extension-flexion. Thus […]
Endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossifications are two types of ossification, process that results in the formation of bone tissue.
The two types of ossifications differ in the way new bone is formed.
In endochondral ossification, a cartilage is formed as a precursor on which new bone is laid down.
Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone into the primitive connective tissue (mesenchyme) and there is no intermediate cartilage involved.