Chondrocalcinosis means streaking of soft tissues with calcium. Chondrocalcinosis is also used as synonym for calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease because the finding of chondrocalcinosis has been mostly associated with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, a disease that is caused by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals.
Pesudogout is the another name used for pyrophosphate deposition disease but actually pseudogout is just one form of pyrophosphate deposition disease presentation.
Chondrocalcinosis is a finding on the imaging study like x-ray and means deposition of calcium in the cartilage. But depositions have been found in other tissues as well.
Causes of Chondrocalcinosis
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease is most common cause of chondrocalcinosis. These depositions have been found in high concentrations in hyaline cartilage, synovial tissue, capsule, meniscus, labrum, ligamentum flavum, the soft tissue of the hand and temporomandibular joint.
Other crystals which may give rise to chondrocalcinosis are dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium hydroxyapatite.
Causes of chondrocalcinosis other than Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease
- Hypercalcaemia especially hyperparathyroidism
- Wilson disease – Liver disease caused by copper deposition
- Haemochromatosis – Iron strorage disease
- Ochronosis – Ochronosis (or alkaptonuria) is a rare multisystem autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that leads to the bluish black discoloration of certain tissues, such as the ear cartilage and the ocular tissue.
- Trauma can lead to chondrocalcinosis in injured joint.
- Hypomagnesaemia – Decrease of magnesium levels in body
- Hypothyroidism – Decrease in thyroid hormone levels
Presentation, Imaging and Treatment of Chndrocalcinosis
Chndrocalcinosis is not a clinical entity but finding on imaging study. The finding may be an incidental finding in patients without symptoms.
As most of chondrocalcinosis is associated with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, in most of the patients, the presentation would be similar to pseudogout or calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.
Presentation in other cases would depend on the primary disease causing chndrocalcinosis.
The treatment would also depend on the causative disease.
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