Femur Anatomy and Attachments

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The femur is also called the thigh bone and is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It is composed of upper end, lower end and a shaft. The upper and bears a rounded head, whereas the lower end is widely expanded to from two large condyles. The head is directed medially. The cylindrical […]

Anatomy of Patella

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The patella is the sesamoid that lies within the quadriceps tendon/patella ligament and forms part of the knee joint and is situated in front of lower end of femur appx 1 cm above the knee joint. If patella lies higher, it is called patella alta and if it is lower, it is called patella baja. […]

Popliteal Artery Anatomy and Course

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The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery in the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. It gives a main branch as anterior tibial artery and continue as tibioperoneal or tibiofibular trunk or posterior tibial artery. It supplies knee, lower leg and foot. Course of Popliteal Artery […]

Bony Pelvis Anatomy

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The pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs. It includes following structures. Bony pelvis or pelvic skeleton is formed by hip bones, sacrum and coccyx. Anatomy of Bony Pelvis The pelvis is a ring structure made up of three bones: the sacrum and two […]

Hip bone Anatomy

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Hip bone is also known as inominate bone or pelvic bone and is formed by fusion of three bones namely ilium, ischium and pubis bones. Hip bone forms part of pelvis and takes part in hip joint articulation. The hip bone is made up of the three parts – the ilium, pubis and ischium. Prior […]

Sacrum Bone Anatomy

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The sacrum is a part of spine that lies between the fifth segment of the lumbar spine (L5) and the coccyx. Sacrum consists of five fused vertebrae S1-S5 and is triangular in shape. It is part of pelvic girdle and forms the posterior wall of pelvis and articulate with iliac bones at the sacroiliac joints. […]

Hip Joint Anatomy

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The hip joint is a ball-and-socket synovial joint which connects axial skeleton [pelvis] to lower limb [femur]. The ball of the joint is formed by femoral head, and the socket is formed by acetabulum. The acetabulum is formed by the merging of the ossification centers of ilium, ischium and pubis bones of pelvis. The hip […]

Iliotibial Band Anatomy

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The iliotibial band is also called iliotibial tract and is a wide sheath of fibrous tissue that surrounds muscles on lateral aspect of thigh. It connects hip muscles to tibia and plays important part in thigh motion. Origin, Course and Insertion of Iliotibial Band Iliotabial band is actually a thickening in the lateral part of […]

Synovial Plica Anatomy

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Plica is a remanant of synovial membranes. During embryonic life [fetal development], the knee is not a single chamber is divided into three separate compartments by synovial membranes. These membranes are resorbed by thitd or fourth month and knee becomes and the knee becomes a single chamber. Incomplete resorption of membranes may various degrees of […]