Normal Gait Cycle

gait cycle

When we walk, we make the use of our two legs, alternately, to provide both support and propulsion, with at least one foot being in contact with the ground at all times. An individual’s style or way of walking – may change slightly with mood. While the terms gait and walking are often used interchangeably, […]

Joints of Our Body


Joints are locations where bones make contact with each other.  Because their function is movement and support, the joints have been modified accordingly to serve the required function. The joints are broadly classified into three categories. Each category has further subcategories Fibrous Joints These are also called synarthroses or  immovable articulations. In these joints, the […]

What is Musculoskeletal System?


It is also known as Locomotor system. Musculoskeletal system serves the function of structural support and locomotion. It consists of different units each serving a unique function. The name musculoskeletal system implies muscles and skeleton. These and many other structures together constitute musculoskeletal system. Bone, joints, ligaments, muscles and nerves are the structures that constitute […]

Anatomy of Distal Interphalangeal Joint


Distal interphalangeal joint is the joint between distal phalanx and middle phalan. Distal interphalangeal joint is a bicondylar ginglymus joint. The joint is very well stabilized collateral ligaments on medial and lateral side and the volar plate There are two types of collateral ligaments – - The proper collateral ligaments which  insert on the lateral […]

Anatomy of The Nail


The nail is an integral component of the digital tip serves to protect the fingertip, provides counterforce to tactile sensation  and carries thermoregulationion via glomus bodies in the nail bed and matrix. Parts of The Nail Nail Plate The nail plate (corpus unguis) is the hard visible part of the nail.   The nail plate […]

Anatomy of Distal Phalanx of Hand

Parts of Distal Phalanx

The distal phalanx consists of following parts, from proximal to distal. Base Shaft Tuft or ungual tuberosity These phalanges differ in size, shape and contour from proximal and middle phalnges. Distal phalanges of the middle and ring finger are similar in length. It is followed by index and little finger. Except for little finger, width […]

Types of Bone – Cortical and Cancellous

Bone Mineralization

Human skeleton is made of two types of osseous tissues which differ in their structure and distribution. The difference in their structures and distribution is designed to carry different functions. Cortical Bone Cortical bone is also called compact bone or lamellar bone. Shaft of bone in a long bone like femur is typical example of […]

Hand Injuries


Hand Injuries – Overview Hand injuries are one of the most common orthopedic injuries. Nonoperative treatment plays a significant role in the management of fractures and dislocations of the hand. Most of the decisions of hand injuries are based on management of the soft tissues. The injured part must not be considered in isolation, rather, […]

What is Anatomical Snuffbox?

Anatomical Snuffbox

The anatomical snuffbox is a triangular deepening on  dorsoradial aspect of the hand at the level of the carpal bones. [See image below] The name originates from use of this space  for snuffing tobacco powder. . Anatomically, the tendon of  extensor pollicis longus forms the posterior border Anterior border is formed by extensor pollicis brevis […]

Volar Intercalated Segemnt Instability or VISI


As the name suggests, volar intercalated segment instability or VISI is opposite of dorsal intercalated segment instability or DISI. VISI is  said to be present when volar flexion of the lunate>15 degree [in relation to the longitudinal axis of the radius and capitate]  when the wrist is in a neutral position; With loss of ulnar […]