Endochondral Ossification and Intramembranous Ossification

endochondral-ossification in growing bone

Ossification or osteogenesis is the process of laying down new bone material by osteoblasts. It results in formation of bone tissue. Normal bone ossification is of two tyoes – Endochondral ossification – A cartilage is formed as precursor on which new bone is laid down whereas Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone […]

Bony Pelvis Anatomy

bony pelvis front view

The pelvic region of the trunk is the lower part of the trunk, between the abdomen and the thighs. It includes following structures. Bony pelvis or pelvic skeleton is formed by hip bones, sacrum and coccyx. Anatomy of Bony Pelvis The pelvis is a ring structure made up of three bones: the sacrum and two […]

Hip bone Anatomy


Hip bone is also known as inominate bone or pelvic bone and is formed by fusion of three bones namely ilium, ischium and pubis bones. Hip bone forms part of pelvis and takes part in hip joint articulation. The hip bone is made up of the three parts – the ilium, pubis and ischium. Prior […]

Sacrum Bone Anatomy

Sacrum bone anterior and posterior view

The sacrum is a part of spine that lies between the fifth segment of the lumbar spine (L5) and the coccyx. Sacrum consists of five fused vertebrae S1-S5 and is triangular in shape. It is part of pelvic girdle and forms the posterior wall of pelvis and articulate with iliac bones at the sacroiliac joints. […]

Hip Joint Anatomy

Hip Joint Anatomy

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket synovial joint which connects axial skeleton [pelvis] to lower limb [femur]. The ball of the joint is formed by femoral head, and the socket is formed by acetabulum. The acetabulum is formed by the merging of the ossification centers of ilium, ischium and pubis bones of pelvis. The hip […]

Iliotibial Band Anatomy

Iliotibial band anatomy

The iliotibial band is also called iliotibial tract and is a wide sheath of fibrous tissue that surrounds muscles on lateral aspect of thigh. It connects hip muscles to tibia and plays important part in thigh motion. Origin, Course and Insertion of Iliotibial Band Iliotabial band is actually a thickening in the lateral part of […]

Synovial Plica Anatomy

synovial plica

Plica is a remanant of synovial membranes. During embryonic life [fetal development], the knee is not a single chamber is divided into three separate compartments by synovial membranes. These membranes are resorbed by thitd or fourth month and knee becomes and the knee becomes a single chamber. Incomplete resorption of membranes may various degrees of […]

Shoulder Joint Anatomy

Ligaments of shoulder joint

Anatomy of Shoulder Joint Shoulder is actually composed of four joints, namely glenohumeral joint, acromioclavicular joint, sternoclavicular joint and scapulothoracic joint. In common usage, shoulder joint mostly refers to glenohumeral joint , the major joint of shoulder but can alsoinclude acromioclavicular joint. Shoulder joint is the most mobile joint in human body and responsible for […]

Suprascapular Nerve – Anatomy & Clinical Significance

Suprascapular nerve course, Public domina image

Suprascapular nerve is derived from upper trunk of brachial plexus, and receives fibers from C5 and C6. It is a mixed nerve containing both sensory and motor fibers. [Read anatomy of brachial plexus] After it emerges,  it sends sensory branches to both the glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints. It passes downward, laterally deep to the omohyoid […]

Brachial Plexus Anatomy

Anatomy of Brachial Plexus

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve roots and proceeds through the neck, the axilla, and into the arm. The nerves coming out from this supply upper limb and shoulder girdle. Structure of Brachial Plexus The brachial plexus consists […]