Normal Gait Cycle

gait cycle

When we walk, we make the use of our two legs, alternately, to provide both support and propulsion, with at least one foot being in contact with the ground at all times. An individual’s style or way of walking – may change slightly with mood. While the terms gait and walking are often used interchangeably, […]

Joints of Our Body


Joints are locations where bones make contact with each other.  Because their function is movement and support, the joints have been modified accordingly to serve the required function. The joints are broadly classified into three categories. Each category has further subcategories Fibrous Joints These are also called synarthroses or  immovable articulations. In these joints, the […]

What is Musculoskeletal System?


It is also known as Locomotor system. Musculoskeletal system serves the function of structural support and locomotion. It consists of different units each serving a unique function. The name musculoskeletal system implies muscles and skeleton. These and many other structures together constitute musculoskeletal system. Bone, joints, ligaments, muscles and nerves are the structures that constitute […]

Anatomy of The Nail


The nail is an integral component of the digital tip serves to protect the fingertip, provides counterforce to tactile sensation  and carries thermoregulationion via glomus bodies in the nail bed and matrix. Parts of The Nail Nail Plate The nail plate (corpus unguis) is the hard visible part of the nail.   The nail plate […]

Anatomy of Distal Phalanx of Hand

Parts of Distal Phalanx

Anatomy of Distal Phalanx of Hand The distal phalanx consists of following parts, from proximal to distal. Base Shaft Tuft or ungual tuberosity These phalanges differ in size, shape and contour from proximal and middle phalnges. Distal phalanges of the middle and ring finger are similar in length. It is followed by index and little […]

Cortical Bone and Cancellous Bone

Bone Mineralization

Human skeleton is made of two types of osseous tissues which differ in their structure and distribution. The difference in their structures and distribution is designed to carry different functions. Cortical Bone Cortical bone is also called compact bone or lamellar bone. Shaft of bone in a long bone like femur is typical example of […]

Hand Injuries


Hand Injuries – Overview Hand injuries are one of the most common orthopedic injuries. Nonoperative treatment plays a significant role in the management of fractures and dislocations of the hand. Most of the decisions of hand injuries are based on management of the soft tissues. The injured part must not be considered in isolation, rather, […]

Volar and Dorsal Intercalated Segment Instability

MRI of Dorsal Intercalated SegmentInstability

Volar Intercalated Segemnt Instability or VISI As the name suggests, volar intercalated segment instability or VISI is opposite of dorsal intercalated segment instability or DISI. Volar and Dorsal Intercalated Segment Instability are instabilities of intercalated segment of the wrist. The intercalated segment is the proximal carpal row and Volar Intercalated Segment Instability VISI is  said […]

Normal Wrist Motion


Normal wrist motion consists of following movements Flexion – When the hand and wrist is moved toward palmar surface of forearm Extension – When the hand and wrist is moved toward dorsal surface of forearm Radial deviation – Hand is deviated towards radial side Ulnar Deviation – Hand is deviated towards radial side Axial rotation […]