Recently Added Articles


SCIWORA Syndrome

SCIWORA snyndrome stands for spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality or SCIWORA is an injury in the … [Read More...]



Radiofrequency Chondroplasty

Radiofrequency chondroplasty is a technique where heat is used to remove the unstable edges of the defect producing a smooth, stable articular cartilage surface and slow … [Read More...]


Microfracture Chondroplasty

The microfracture chondroplasty is a technique to treat full thickness cartilage defects that leads to the formation of new joint surface cartilage. The damaged area is … [Read More...]



Towel Stretch Exercises for Plantar Exercises

Exercises for Plantar Fasciitis

Exercises for plantar fasciitis are important part of treatment regimen of plantar fasciitis along with drugs, footwear change and orthotics. Exercises for plantar fasciitis are mainly stretch and strengthening exercises designed for plantar fascia and Achilles tendon because most people with plantar fasciitis have a slight tightness of their Achilles … [Read More...]

Achilles tendinosis site

Achilles Tendinosis – Causes and Treatment

Achilles tendinosis is a condition due to repeated microtrauma which may cause stiffness, edema, weakness and pain in the Achilles tendon. Achilles tendinosis affects sports persons [runners, gymnasts, cyclists, and volleyball players] and recreational athletes . It affects inactive people too. It is said to be a failed healing response to wear and tear rather thin … [Read More...]

Essex Lopresti Fracture

Essex Lopresti Fracture

The Essex Lopresti fracture is also called longitudinal radioulnar dissociation and consists of fracture of the radial head, rupture of the interosseous membrane, and disruption of the distal radioulnar joint. It is important to recognize  and have high index of suspicion because Essex Lopresti fracture is often missed. Isolated radial head fracture can be successfully … [Read More...]

Non Traumatic Disorders

Anteater Nose Sign

Tarsal Coalition – Presentation and Treatment

Tarsal coalition is a congenital abnormality of the foot in which two or more of the tarsal bones are joined by bone, cartilage, or fibrous tissue. Tarsal bones in a normal foot are otherwise separate. More than half of the cases of tarsal coalition are bilateral. Tarsal coalition belongs to the category of flatfoot called rigid flatfoot. In this condition, the feet are stiff, angle outward … [Read More...]

Xray of Sever Disease

Sever Disease – Presentation and Treatment

Sever disease or calcaneal apophysisits was first described by JW Sever in 1912. [1] Sever disease is a painful inflammation of the calcaneal apophysis. It is considered as adolescent nonarticular osteochondroses [2] just like Iselin disease. Repetitive pull of the tendocalcaneus on its insertion is thought to be responsible for this entity. The problem occur in growing age and occurrence is … [Read More...]

Langenskiold Classification of Blount disease

Blount Disease – Presentation & Treatment

Blount disease, also termed as tibia vara is characterized by disordered endochondral ossification of the medial part of the proximal tibial physis. Though it is called tibia vara, actual deformities are multiplanar - tibia with varus, procurvatum (a deformity where the apex of angulation is anterior), and internal rotation. It is named after Walter Putnam Blount, an American pediatric … [Read More...]

Kohler diseaseof patella

Kohler Disease of Patella

Osteochondrosis of the primary ossification centre of the patella is also called Kohler disease [navicular osteochondrosis is also called Kohler disease]. For sake of differentiation some authors also term it as Kohler disease of patella.  It is a rare cause of knee pain in children between 5 and 9 years of age. It affects the single knee usually but bilateral cases have been reported in … [Read More...]

Xray of Kohler Disease

Kohler Disease – Presentation and Treatment

Kohler disease is osteochondrosis of the navicular bone, first described by Kohler in 1908. In this, there is avascular necrosis navicular bone. Exact occurrence of Kohler disease is not known. The disorder is more frequent in children aged 5-10 years but can begin as early as 2 years. Boys are more commonly affected than girls but girls are reported to be affected at a younger age.This happens … [Read More...]

plantar Fascia Anatomy

Plantar Fasciitis – Causes and Treatment

Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain and occurs due to degenerative changes at the insertion of the plantar fascia on calcaneal tuberosity. The plantar fascia is most common cause of heel pain for which professional help is sought. A heel spur is commonly found in plantar fasciitis patients, but many asymptomatic persons also have heel spurs. Plantar fasciitis could be bilateral … [Read More...]

heel spur xray

Heel Spur is not Cause of Your Heel Pain – Plantar Fasciitis is

Heel spur is a small bony outgrowth or osteophyte on the underside of heel. Heel spur is generally seen in middle aged persons but can be found in other age groups too. Heel spur is commonly believed to be cause of heel pain which is not true as heel spur is commonly found in persons who don’t have any heel pain. It is the related condition called plantar fasciitis which causes the … [Read More...]


Retrocalcaneal Bursitis – Causes and Treatment

Retrocalcaneal bursitis is also called insertional bursitis and is cause of pain in posterior heel or ankle due to inflammation of Retrocalcaneal or subtendinous bursa [which is located between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus]. This bursa is anterior to Achilles tendon. Subcutaneous calcaneal bursa, superficial to the Achilles tendon. Also called the Achilles bursa. This bursa is … [Read More...]

Haglund deformity xray

Haglund Deformity – Symptoms and Treatment

What Is Haglund Deformity? Bony enlargement on the back of calcaneum [heel] is called Haglund deformity. It is also known as a pump bump or Bauer bump or Mulhulland deformity.It often causes retrocalcaneal burisits due to involvement of bursa that lies in vivinity. It is also called pump bump because of its association with high heel shoes or pumps. In Haglund deformity, the soft tissue near the … [Read More...]

Achilles-tendon-rupture and gap is seen

Achilles Tendon Rupture – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Achilles tendon rupture commonly occurs in people playing recreational sports. The rupture usually occurs during an activity that puts load on the Achilles tendon. Achilles tendon rupture is common generally people of middle age and above, and can be treated both conservatively as well as surgically. Most of the Achilles tendon rupture occurs approximately 2-6 cm above the calcaneal insertion … [Read More...]

Scores Indices



WOMAC index or  Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritic Index   is used to assess the course of disease or response to treatment in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Initially developed in 1982, the WOMAC has undergone multiple revisions. What Does WOMAC  Measure? WOMAC measures of three subscales on a scale of 0-4.  [None - 0, Mild - 1, … [Read More...]

Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale

Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale

The Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale or Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score (PGCS) is the equivalent of the Glasgow Coma Scale and is use to  assess the consciousness of infants and children. Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale is used in cases of head injury of children mostly. The scale has been modified from original Glasgow coma scale as s many of the assessments for an adult … [Read More...]

Glasgow Coma Scale

Glasgow Coma Scale

Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale  developed by Teasdale and Jennett and is also known as Glasgow Coma Score. Glasgow coma scale is used to record consciousness levels of person. Glasgow coma scale is routinely used in head injuries and other central nervous system conditions The scale comprises three tests: eye, verbal and motor responses. The three … [Read More...]

Tegner Activity LEvel Scale

Tegner Activity Level Scale

Tegner activity level scale is a scale that aims to provide a standardized method of grading work and sporting activities. It was developed to complement  the Lysholm scale after it was observed that   that limitations in function scores  in Lysholm scale  may be masked by a  decrease in activity level. Tegner activity level scale is used  in  conjunction with the … [Read More...]


Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale

Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale is used to  evaluate outcomes of knee ligament surgery  in patients First version of this was published in 1982. The present scale includes  8 items Limp Support Locking Instability Pain Swelling Stair climbing Squatting Apart from  knee ligment injury, the score can be used for meniscal tears, knee cartilage lesions, … [Read More...]


Kellgren Lawrence Classification For Knee Osteoarthrits

The Kellgren Lawrence grading system is radiological classification of knee osteoarthritis. It progresses from grade 0 to grade IV and and based on xrays. Knee osteoarthritis is a very common problem prevalent in all sections of society. While most of the changes are related to age, weight is a modifiable factor. Grading of knee osteoarthritis is needed to gauge the … [Read More...]

Faces Pain Scale Revised

Faces Pain Scale – Revised

The Faces Pain Scale – Revised (FPS-R) is a self-report measure of pain intensity. This scale was developed for children and has been. It was adapted from the Faces Pain Scale. It can also be used in adult people who are unable to use numerical rating scale like visual analog scale. It is particularly recommended for use in younger children as numerical self-rating … [Read More...]