Recently Added Articles



Radiofrequency Chondroplasty

Radiofrequency chondroplasty is a technique where heat is used to remove the unstable edges of the defect producing a smooth, stable articular cartilage surface and slow … [Read More...]


Microfracture Chondroplasty

The microfracture chondroplasty is a technique to treat full thickness cartilage defects that leads to the formation of new joint surface cartilage. The damaged area is … [Read More...]



Achilles tendinosis site

Achilles Tendinosis – Causes and Treatment

Achilles tendinosis is a condition due to repeated microtrauma which may cause stiffness, edema, weakness and pain in the Achilles tendon. Achilles tendinosis affects sports persons [runners, gymnasts, cyclists, and volleyball players] and recreational athletes . It affects inactive people too. It is said to be a failed healing response to wear and tear rather thin … [Read More...]

Essex Lopresti Fracture

Essex Lopresti Fracture

The Essex Lopresti fracture is also called longitudinal radioulnar dissociation and consists of fracture of the radial head, rupture of the interosseous membrane, and disruption of the distal radioulnar joint. It is important to recognize  and have high index of suspicion because Essex Lopresti fracture is often missed. Isolated radial head fracture can be successfully … [Read More...]

Fracture Head Second Metacarpal With Fracture Shaft of First Metacarpal Fixred With Kwire and Finger Distractor

Metacarpal Fracture Xrays

#Image 1 -  Fourth and Fifth Metacarpal Fracture Xray The image is antero-posterior view of xray wrist with hand. The present xray shows badly comminuted fracture of base of fifth metacarpal. Also seen is fracture of fourth metacarpal. The type of fracture indicates that there was a strong traumatic force that caused so much comminution. In such case of damage to … [Read More...]

Non Traumatic Disorders

heel spur xray

Heel Spur is not Cause of Your Heel Pain – Plantar Fasciitis is

Heel spur is a small bony outgrowth or osteophyte on the underside of heel. Heel spur is generally seen in middle aged persons but can be found in other age groups too. Heel spur is commonly believed to be cause of heel pain which is not true as heel spur is commonly found in persons who don’t have any heel pain. It is the related condition called plantar fasciitis which causes the … [Read More...]


Retrocalcaneal Bursitis – Causes and Treatment

Retrocalcaneal bursitis is also called insertional bursitis and is cause of pain in posterior heel or ankle due to inflammation of Retrocalcaneal or subtendinous bursa [which is located between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus]. This bursa is anterior to Achilles tendon. Subcutaneous calcaneal bursa, superficial to the Achilles tendon. Also called the Achilles bursa. This bursa is … [Read More...]

Haglund deformity xray

Haglund Deformity – Symptoms and Treatment

What Is Haglund Deformity? Bony enlargement on the back of calcaneum [heel] is called Haglund deformity. It is also known as a pump bump or Bauer bump or Mulhulland deformity.It often causes retrocalcaneal burisits due to involvement of bursa that lies in vivinity. It is also called pump bump because of its association with high heel shoes or pumps. In Haglund deformity, the soft tissue near the … [Read More...]

Achilles-tendon-rupture and gap is seen

Achilles Tendon Rupture – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Achilles tendon rupture commonly occurs in people playing recreational sports. The rupture usually occurs during an activity that puts load on the Achilles tendon. Achilles tendon rupture is common generally people of middle age and above, and can be treated both conservatively as well as surgically. Most of the Achilles tendon rupture occurs approximately 2-6 cm above the calcaneal insertion … [Read More...]

Achilles tendinosis site

Achilles Tendinosis – Causes and Treatment

Achilles tendinosis is a condition due to repeated microtrauma which may cause stiffness, edema, weakness and pain in the Achilles tendon. Achilles tendinosis affects sports persons [runners, gymnasts, cyclists, and volleyball players] and recreational athletes . It affects inactive people too. It is said to be a failed healing response to wear and tear rather thin inflammation, though new … [Read More...]

Shin Splints are Common in Runners

Shin Splints or Medial tibial stress syndrome

Shin splints or Medial tibial stress syndrome is an overuse injury or repetitive stress injury of the shin area [tibial bone]. These affect persons who engage in running and jumping. It affects about 15% of all running-related injuries. It is most often found in runners, and persons playing other sports like football, basketball, soccer, and dancers. Untreated there is a risk of progression … [Read More...]

Fibromyalgia Tender Points

Fibromyalgia – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Fibromyalgia or fibromyalgia syndrome is a disorder that is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, memory problems, allodynia and mood alterations. Difficulty in swallowing. bowel and bladder abnormalities, paresthesia and cognitive dysfunction have also been reported to occur in some patients Symptoms may begin after a physical trauma, surgery, infection … [Read More...]

Iliotibial band anatomy

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is also called iliotibial friction syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain among runners, cyclists and military personnel though it can be observed in other athletes as well. It is considered an overuse syndrome as it is typically is observed in people who exercise vigorously. Incidence of iliotibial band syndrome in the general is not exactly known. It is … [Read More...]

Popliteus Tendinopathy occurs in Popliteus Muscle

Popliteus Tendonitis Symptoms and Treatment

Popliteus tendonitis is an uncommon pathology that which often occurs in athletes and people with a history of other knee ligament injuries. The pathology involves popliteus muscle which is present on the posterolateral aspect of knee region. Popliteus muscle is key stabilizer  the knee, and plays an important role in maintaining proper mechanics at the knee during walking, running, and … [Read More...]


Hoffa Syndrome

Hoffa syndrome is a condition due to irritation of infrapatellar fat pad and a cause of anterior knee pain. It is also called Hoffa’s disease or fat pad impingement syndrome or simply fat pad syndrome. Hoff’s fat pad or the infrapatellar fat pad is a cylindrical piece of fat that is situated under and behind the patella bone within the knee. It is very rich in nerve supply. Pathophysiology of … [Read More...]

Scores Indices



WOMAC index or  Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritic Index   is used to assess the course of disease or response to treatment in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Initially developed in 1982, the WOMAC has undergone multiple revisions. What Does WOMAC  Measure? WOMAC measures of three subscales on a scale of 0-4.  [None - 0, Mild - 1, … [Read More...]

Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale

Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale

The Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale or Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score (PGCS) is the equivalent of the Glasgow Coma Scale and is use to  assess the consciousness of infants and children. Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale is used in cases of head injury of children mostly. The scale has been modified from original Glasgow coma scale as s many of the assessments for an adult … [Read More...]

Glasgow Coma Scale

Glasgow Coma Scale

Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale  developed by Teasdale and Jennett and is also known as Glasgow Coma Score. Glasgow coma scale is used to record consciousness levels of person. Glasgow coma scale is routinely used in head injuries and other central nervous system conditions The scale comprises three tests: eye, verbal and motor responses. The three … [Read More...]

Tegner Activity LEvel Scale

Tegner Activity Level Scale

Tegner activity level scale is a scale that aims to provide a standardized method of grading work and sporting activities. It was developed to complement  the Lysholm scale after it was observed that   that limitations in function scores  in Lysholm scale  may be masked by a  decrease in activity level. Tegner activity level scale is used  in  conjunction with the … [Read More...]


Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale

Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale is used to  evaluate outcomes of knee ligament surgery  in patients First version of this was published in 1982. The present scale includes  8 items Limp Support Locking Instability Pain Swelling Stair climbing Squatting Apart from  knee ligment injury, the score can be used for meniscal tears, knee cartilage lesions, … [Read More...]


Kellgren Lawrence Classification For Knee Osteoarthrits

The Kellgren Lawrence grading system is radiological classification of knee osteoarthritis. It progresses from grade 0 to grade IV and and based on xrays. Knee osteoarthritis is a very common problem prevalent in all sections of society. While most of the changes are related to age, weight is a modifiable factor. Grading of knee osteoarthritis is needed to gauge the … [Read More...]

Faces Pain Scale Revised

Faces Pain Scale – Revised

The Faces Pain Scale – Revised (FPS-R) is a self-report measure of pain intensity. This scale was developed for children and has been. It was adapted from the Faces Pain Scale. It can also be used in adult people who are unable to use numerical rating scale like visual analog scale. It is particularly recommended for use in younger children as numerical self-rating … [Read More...]