default-thumb-bas

Femur Anatomy and Attachments

The femur is also called the thigh bone and is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It is composed of upper end, lower end and a shaft. The upper and bears a rounded head, whereas the lower end is widely expanded to from two large condyles. The head is directed medially. The cylindrical shaft is convex forwards. Upper end of Femur The upper end of the femur includes the head, the … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Anatomy of Patella

The patella is the sesamoid that lies within the quadriceps tendon/patella ligament and forms part of the knee joint and is situated in front of lower end of femur appx 1 cm above the knee joint. If patella lies higher, it is called patella alta and if it is lower, it is called patella baja. It is the largest sesamoid bone of the body. The ossification centrers of the patella appear between 3 and … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Popliteal Artery Anatomy and Course

The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery in the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. It gives a main branch as anterior tibial artery and continue as tibioperoneal or tibiofibular trunk or posterior tibial artery. It supplies knee, lower leg and foot. Course of Popliteal Artery Femoral artery which is continuation of … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome refers to symptoms of claudication and leg ischemia due to compression of the popliteal artery due to congenital deformity of muscles, tendons or fibrous tissues. Compression of the popliteal artery decreases blood flow to the lower leg and can damage the artery. Popliteal artery syndrome was described first in 1879 by Anderson Stuart. It occurs most often … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Hip Osteoarthritis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

This article focuses on hip osteoarthritis. For details on Osteoarthritis, read Osteoarthritis Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Hip osteoarthritis is common and can result in severe pain and disability. It can make it hard to do everyday activities like bending over to tie a shoe, rising from a chair, or taking a short walk. It is a chronic disease and takes months to years to appear and … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Endochondral Ossification and Intramembranous Ossification

Ossification or osteogenesis is the process of laying down new bone material by osteoblasts. It results in formation of bone tissue. Normal bone ossification is of two tyoes - Endochondral ossification - A cartilage is formed as precursor on which new bone is laid down whereas Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone into the primitive connective tissue … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Erosive Osteoarthritis

Erosive osteoarthritis  is a form of osteoarthritis with an additional erosive or inflammatory phenomena though the patients are negative for rheumatoid factor negative. It most commonly affects of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the hand. First carpometacarpal joint is affected less frequently. Joints of foot are affected less commonly. Joints such as the hip and shoulder may … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Chondromalacia Patella – Presentation and Treatment

Chondromalacia patella is a condition characterized by softening and degeneration of the patellar articular cartilage. Chondromalacia patella is a term sometimes considered synonymous with patellofemoral pain syndrome but patellofemoral pain syndrome is a term that applies only to individuals without cartilage damage. Chondromalacia patella is considered as the most common cause of chronic knee … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Osteoarthritis Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Osteoarthritis, the most common joint disease is a heterogeneous group of conditions resulting in common tissue and radiological changes. Conventionally labeled as degenerative disorder due to excessive wear and tear, currently osteoarthritis is thought to involve not only cartilage but also the entire joint organ, including the subchondral bone and synovium. Abnormal mechanics and inflammation is … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Subacromial Bursitis Presentation and Treatment

Subacromial bursitis is inflammation of the subacromial bursa, a bursa that separates the superior surface of the supraspinatus tendon from the overlying coracoacromial ligament, acromion, coracoid (the acromial arch) and from the deep surface of the deltoid muscle. The subacromial bursa helps the motion of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff in activities such as overhead work. The … [Read More...]

Recently Added Articles

default-thumb-bas

Anatomy of Patella

The patella is the sesamoid that lies within the quadriceps tendon/patella ligament and forms part of the knee joint and is situated in front of lower end of femur appx 1 … [Read More...]

Spine

Procedures

default-thumb-bas

Radiofrequency Chondroplasty

Radiofrequency chondroplasty is a technique where heat is used to remove the unstable edges of the defect producing a smooth, stable articular cartilage surface and slow … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Microfracture Chondroplasty

The microfracture chondroplasty is a technique to treat full thickness cartilage defects that leads to the formation of new joint surface cartilage. The damaged area is … [Read More...]

Tumors

Trauma

default-thumb-bas

Snapping Hip Syndrome

In snapping hip syndrome there is an audible snap or click that occurs in or around the hip. Snapping hip syndrome may be called External - Snapping of the iliotibial band or gluteus maximus over the greater trochanter Internal - Snapping of the iliopsoas tendon The condition occurs most often in individuals aged 15-40 years and affects females slightly more often … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Peroneal Nerve Entrapment

Peroneal nerve entrapment can occur in either common peroneal nerve, superficial peroneal nerve or deep peroneal nerve. To understand these entrapments and their effects, it is important to understand the anatomy. Relevant Anatomy Peroneal Nerve About mid thigh or lower, sciatic nerve divides into two branches – common peroneal nerve and tibial nerve. The common peroneal … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Pellegrini Stieda Syndrome

Pellegrini Stieda syndrome is presence of pain and limitations of movement of knee  in a patient with previous injury to medial collateral ligament of knee, due to ossification of the femoral attachment. The calcified lesion is known as Pellegrini Stieda lesion or sign. Most of the cases of Pellegrini Stieda lesions are not symptomatic, and Pellegrini Stieda syndrome is … [Read More...]

Scores Indices

default-thumb-bas

WOMAC Index

WOMAC index or  Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritic Index   is used to assess the course of disease or response to treatment in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Initially developed in 1982, the WOMAC has undergone multiple revisions. What Does WOMAC  Measure? WOMAC measures of three subscales on a scale of 0-4.  [None - 0, Mild - 1, … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale

The Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale or Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score (PGCS) is the equivalent of the Glasgow Coma Scale and is use to  assess the consciousness of infants and children. Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale is used in cases of head injury of children mostly. The scale has been modified from original Glasgow coma scale as s many of the assessments for an adult … [Read More...]

default-thumb-bas

Glasgow Coma Scale

Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale  developed by Teasdale and Jennett and is also known as Glasgow Coma Score. Glasgow coma scale is used to record consciousness levels of person. Glasgow coma scale is routinely used in head injuries and other central nervous system conditions The scale comprises three tests: eye, verbal and motor responses. The three … [Read More...]